@Green March/April 2022 | Page 20


@ green | March-April , 2022
BY ASSOCIATE PROF . DR . AHMAD AZMIN MOHAMAD , Lecturer at the School of Materials & Mineral Resources Engineering , Universiti Sains Malaysia ( USM )
DR . NUR AZAM ABDULLAH , ASSISTANT PROFESSOR AT the Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering , International Islamic University Malaysia ( IIUM )
MINISTER of Science , Technology and Innovation ( MOSTI ) Dato ’ Sri Dr Adham Baba recently announced Malaysia ’ s participation in the UAE government ’ s Expo 2020 Dubai 5-year legacy programme , where the Malaysia Pavilion at the event site will be retained and repurposed for the next five years .
The Pavilion will be the Malaysian Technology and Innovation Hub in the UAE . It will be retained as government-owned and operated by a private Malaysian company for the next five years .
The Hub will operate on a publicprivate partnership model where both the Malaysian government and the private entity can utilise this facility to host officials and dignitaries and a platform to promote technology-based products and services .
“ Malaysia Pavilion ’ s transformation into a Technology and Innovation Hub reflects our country ’ s ambition

Recycling electric vehicle batteries

Some components contain toxic materials , heavy metals and chemicals that will pollute the environment

ELECTRIC vehicles are becoming increasingly popular worldwide as people become increasingly concerned about climate change .

This sensation was prompted by a statement issued by Tesla CEO Elon Musk that electricity consumption would double if all cars switched to electric vehicles . This needs to align with the Malaysian government ’ s commitment to outline net-zero carbon emissions early as 2050 .
The electric car battery , also known as BKE , is environmental-friendly and is operated at a cheaper expenditure for a longer duration . It has led to rising demand for BKE production around the world .
BKE is a battery utilised to drive electric motors for electric cars or hybrid electric cars . Meanwhile , these batteries are rechargeable ( secondary ) and usually based on lithium chemicals .
Batteries in cars are generally used to power electronic devices and lighting in cars , whereas BKEs are specially produced to power the vehicle to travel for certain distances and periods . They must have a high kilowatt-hour ( kWh ) energy to fulfil the design objectives .
In short , batteries for electric vehicles are detailed through a relatively high power to vehicle weight ratio . Smaller and lighter batteries are practical as they reduce the vehicle ’ s weight and improve driving performance .
The most typical type of battery in modern electric vehicles is lithium-ion batteries ( LIBs ) due to their high energy density relative to their weight . Other rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles include nickel-metal hydroxide ( Ni-MH ).
While lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries comprise toxic elements , primary
( non-chargeable ) batteries such as zincair batteries are also used for remote area assignment conditions . Electric cars have a battery capacity of between 6.0 kWh ( 2012 Renault Twizy ) and 100 kWh ( Tesla Model S 2021 ).
The beginning of the 1990s , driven by the development of mobile electronics such as laptops , cell phones , and power tools , also prompted advances in battery technology .
It is estimated that cumulative output in the range of 0.33 million metric tonnes to four million metric tonnes of LIBs could be generated between 2015 and 2040 . Before the widespread usage of electric cars , where global consumption was around 2.2 per cent , an essential element was ecosystem disposal and recycling .
Development of battery recycling
Every beginning has an end . So too the lithium battery cell , which will be evntually discarded . Although the start of its construction involved a green technology process , at the end of its life , it returns to toxic materials , heavy metals and some other chemicals that will pollute the environment and general health if not handled properly .
While not all battery components can be recycled , at least some effort has been considered . LIBs waste contains a source of precious metals and can be recycled .
LIBs components consist of cathode , anode , electrolyte , and separator polymer

Malaysia joins five-year legacy programme

of becoming a globally competitive digital nation ,” said Dr Adham Baba at the handover ceremony in Dubai .
“ This also reinforces our government ’ s commitment to contribute to the global technology development and strengthen bilateral ties and cooperation with the UAE .”
In selecting the company which would operate the Hub , a Steering Committee chaired by MOSTI Secretary-General Datuk Zainal Abidin Abu Hassan was set up to ensure the candidates met the programme ’ s criteria of being a key player in the main sectors of smart city , smart logistics , smart mobility , or Industry 4.0 .
Following this , the Committee will oversee the Technology and Innovation Hub ’ s ownership and ensure that it achieves what it has set out to accomplish .
Malaysia ’ s homegrown Aerodyne Group , also a global player as No1 Drone Service provider , was selected
to take over operations of the Pavilion in the UAE .
Dr Adham Baba said : “ We recognise that our partner in this programme should share the same aspirations for innovation . Aerodyne Group is recognised as the global leader in the drone service sector .
Their technological footprint extends to smart mobility and smart logistic sectors . With their capabilities and network , the Malaysian Technology and Innovation Hub will prove to be an invaluable asset for their growth in the region .”
Aerodyne Group will be utilising this facility as their second global headquarters .
The Expo 2020 Dubai five-year Legacy Programme is part of the UAE government ’ s long-term initiative of repurposing the event site as an integrated mixed-use community known as District 2020 after the conclusion of the World Expo . — @ Green
components . The focus of recycling is on cathode materials compared to other elements due to transition metal oxide materials that can be manipulated for different applications .
The main recycling topics of precious metals are lithium , cobalt , manganese , and nickel .
Meanwhile , carbon-based anode materials can be effortlessly recycled because of their inert nature and do not easily react chemically during use in LIBs . For example , graphene results from anode recycling and is deemed the most flourishing material ever made by materials engineering researchers .
Recycling for LIBs usually involves physical and chemical processes . The physical process usually includes pre-treatment and recovery of the electrode material . These processes typically possess cell dissolution , crushing , screening , magnetic separation , washing , heating treatment , etc .
Chemical methods apply pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical operations , usually implicating leaching , separation , extraction and precipitation of electrochemical materials .
The development of battery recycling is still in its early stages ; the research and industrial levels are still immature . Among the issues that hinder the production and use of batteries for electric vehicles , the assessment of cost , safety , and pollution are still at a level that does not significantly impact consumers . The challenge will be more complicated to recycle millions of LIBs battery cells by stepping up their usefulness in the next few decades .
On the other hand , the collaboration of battery manufacturers to facilitate the design of cells for recycling purposes is crucial . Hence , it certainly requires clear policies and laws to fulfil this noble aspiration . — @ Green
From left : Datuk Rais Yasin ( Melaka State Executive Councillor for Education , Science , Technology and Innovation ); Shamsul Bahar Mohd Nor ( Chief Executive of the Malaysian Green Technology and Climate Change Corporation ); Datuk Zainal Abidin Abu Hassan ( Secretary-General of the Ministry of Science , Technology and Innovation , and Commissioner-General of Malaysia for Expo 2020 Dubai ); Dr Adham Baba ; Datuk Mohd Tarid Sufian ( Ambassador of Malaysia to the UAE ); Rabih Bou Rached ( Founder and Group CEO of Aerodyne Middle East ).