@Green January/February 2022 | Page 4


@ green | January-February , 2022

Keeping 1.5C alive

The Glasgow Climate Pact will speed up the pace of climate action

COP26 CONCLUDED in Glasgow recently , with nearly 200 countries agreeing at the Glasgow Climate Pact to keep 1.5C alive and finalise the outstanding elements of the Paris Agreement .

Climate negotiators ended two weeks of intense talks with a consensus on urgently accelerating climate action .
The Glasgow Climate Pact , combined with increased ambition and action from countries , means 1.5C remains in sight , but it will only be delivered with concerted and immediate global efforts .
The Glasgow Climate Pact will speed up the pace of climate action . All countries agreed to revisit and strengthen their current emissions targets to 2030 , known as Nationally Determined Contributions ( NDCs ), in 2022 . This will be combined with a yearly political roundtable to consider a global progress report and a Leaders Summit in 2023 .
The Paris Rulebook , the guidelines for delivering the Paris Agreement was also completed after six years of discussions . This will allow for the full delivery of the landmark accord , after agreement on a transparency process which will hold countries
to account as they deliver on their targets . This includes Article 6 , which establishes a robust framework for countries to exchange carbon credits through the UNFCCC .
And for the first time , heeding calls from civil society and countries most vulnerable to climate impacts , COP26 agreed on action on phasing down fossil fuels . The decisions went further than ever before in recognising and addressing loss and damage from climate change ’ s existing impacts .
There were also commitments to significantly increase financial support through the Adaptation Fund as developed countries were urged to double their support to developing countries by 2025 .
The final COP26 text follows two years of intense diplomacy and campaigning undertaken by the UK Presidency to raise ambition and secure action from almost 200 countries . Work focussed on driving short-term emissions to limit temperature rises to 1.5C , mobilising both public and private finance , and supporting communities to adapt to climate impacts .
New national targets
When the UK took on the COP26 mantle , in partnership with Italy , nearly two years ago , only 30 per cent of the world was covered by net-zero
targets . This figure is now at around 90 per cent . Over the same period , 154 Parties submitted new national targets , representing 80 per cent of global emissions .
The UK Presidency has also been focused on driving action to deliver emissions reductions . We have seen a huge shift in coal , with many more countries committing to phase out unabated coal power and ending international coal financing .
Alongside this , we have seen a marked commitment to protect precious natural habitats , with 90 per cent of the world ’ s forests covered by a pledge from 130 countries to end deforestation by 2030 .
While on the world ’ s roads , the transition to zero-emissions vehicles is gathering pace , with some of the largest car manufacturers working together to make all new car sales zero-emission by 2040 and by 2035 in leading markets . Countries and cities are following ambitious petrol and diesel car phaseout dates .
Current policies would leave us on a path to a devastating temperature rise . But work done by independent experts Climate Action Tracker shows that with the full implementation of the fresh collective commitments
could hold temperature rise to 1.8C .
Even with the action committed both during and before COP26 , communities worldwide will continue to feel the impact of our changing planet .
Reflecting on the task ahead , COP26 President Alok Sharma said : “ We can now say with credibility that we have kept 1.5 degrees alive . But , its pulse is weak , and it will only survive if we keep our promises and translate commitments into rapid action . I am grateful to the UNFCCC for working with us to deliver a successful COP26 .
“ From here , we must now move forward together and deliver on the expectations set out in the Glasgow Climate Pact and close the vast gap which remains . Because as Prime Minister Mia Mottley told us at the start of this conference , for Barbados and other small island states , ‘ two degrees is a death sentence .
“ It is up to all of us to sustain our lodestar of keeping 1.5 degrees within reach and to continue our efforts to get finance flowing and boost adaptation . After the collective dedication which has delivered the Glasgow Climate Pact , our work here cannot be wasted .” — @ Green

Commitment to creating sustainable agriculture and land use

GOVERNMENTS AND businesses joined farmers and local communities at COP26 , securing new agreements to protect nature and accelerate the shift to sustainable agriculture and landuse practices by making them more attractive , accessible and affordable than unsustainable alternatives .
Alongside the events marking Nature and Land Use Day , marked the end of week one of COP26 , with negotiations gathering pace and work focussing on week two .
Twenty-six nations set out new commitments to change their agricultural policies to become more sustainable and less polluting , and to invest in the science needed for sustainable agriculture and for protecting food supplies against climate change , laid out in two ‘ Action Agendas ’. All continents were represented , including India , Colombia , Vietnam , Germany , Ghana , and Australia .
Examples of national commitments aligned with this agenda included :
• Brazil ’ s plan to scale its ABC + low carbon farming programme to 72m hectares , saving 1 billion tonnes of emissions by 2030
• Germany ’ s plans to lower emissions from land use by 25m tonnes by 2030
• The UK ’ s aim to engage 75 per cent of farmers in low carbon practices by 2030 The UK also announced funding of £ 500m to support the implementation of the Forest , Agriculture and Commodity Trade ( FACT ) Roadmap launched during the World Leaders Summit earlier , in which 28 countries are working together to protect forests while promoting development and trade . A further £ 65 million will support a ‘ Just Rural Transition ’ to help developing countries shift policies and practices to more sustainable agriculture and food production .
Countries ’ Commitments will help implement the Glasgow Leaders ’ Declaration on Forests and Land
Use , which is now endorsed by 134 countries covering 91 per cent of the world ’ s forests . The Declaration aims to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030 .
World Bank to spend in climate finance annually
COP26 President Alok Sharma said : “ If we are to limit global warming and keep the goal of 1.5C alive , then the world needs to use land sustainably and put protection and restoration of nature at the heart of all we do .
“ The commitments being made show that nature and land use is being recognised as essential to meeting the Paris Agreement goals and will contribute to addressing the twin crises of climate change and biodiversity loss .
“ Meanwhile , I urge all parties to come to the table with the constructive compromises and ambitions needed .”
The World Bank will commit to spending US $ 25 billion in climate finance annually to 2025 through its Climate Action Plan , including a focus on agriculture and food systems .
In a show of similar commitment from the private sector , almost 100 high-profile companies from a range of sectors committed to becoming ‘ Nature Positive ’. Commitments include supermarkets pledging to cut their environmental impact across climate and nature-loss and fashion brands , guaranteeing their materials ’ traceability .
Representatives from Indigenous and local communities participated in events throughout nature day . As stewards of 80 per cent of the world ’ s remaining biodiversity , Indigenous Peoples are leaders in developing nature-based , resilient and effective solutions to climate change .
Nature day also follows the announcement on Ocean Action Day on Nov 5 of over 10 new countries signing up to the ‘ 30by30 ’ target to protect 30 per cent of the world ’ s ocean by 2030 . These were : Bahrain , Jamaica , St Lucia , Sri Lanka , Saudi Arabia , India , Qatar , Samoa , Tonga , Gambia and Georgia . Over 100 countries now support the target . — @ Green